An important component of the overall cannabis experience.
Terpenes are volatile organic compounds synthesized in cannabis secretory cells inside glandular trichomes. This production is increased with light exposure. Terpenes are responsible for giving high-quality cannabis its complex taste and smell. Mostly found in high concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers prior to senescence (deterioration with age).
They aren’t unique to cannabis but can be found in everything from plants and herbs to fruits and spices. Terpenes are an important component of the overall cannabis experience, not only influencing a strain’s taste and smell but also influencing its effects on the body and mind.
Terpenes help shape the feelings and effects a strain delivers. Whether you’re seeking therapeutic effects, looking to make a specific strain of your own as a grower, or just looking for that perfect feeling, learning about terpenes helps use them to our advantage.
Over a hundred different types of terpenes have been identified in cannabis. These diverse molecules are instrumental in delivering the physiological and psychoactive effects of cannabis. Knowing a strain’s terpene composition can allow you to test a sample and verify its identity.
Terpenes provide the plant with natural protection from bacteria, fungus, insects, and other environmental stressors. Terpenes act on receptors and neurotransmitters and are prone to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats. Terpenes also act as a serotonin uptake inhibitor similar to Zoloft, and enhances norepinephrine activity similar to tricyclic antidepressants like Elavil, which increases dopamine activity, augments GABA (the “downer” neurotransmitter that counters glutamate, the “upper”.)
There are over one hundred terpenes unique to cannabis. Chemical analysis is needed to truly know what’s inside of your plant but some can be pinpointed by strain and scent. These terpenes have medicinal properties as well as therapeutic benefits. Profiles of terpenes vary from strain to strain and can serve as a unique identifier for a given strain.
* (PNE) Pinene: (Focused) Vaporizes at 311*F (155*C)
Aroma: Pine, fresh mountain air, slightly woody.
Found in: Pine needles, Rosemary, Basil, Parsley, Dill, Conifers, Sage.
Strains: Purple Kush, Bay Dream, AK-47, Blue Dream, Jack Herer, Chemdawg, Trainwreck, Vanilla Kush, Cookie Cross, 9lb Hammer, Lavender, Bubba Kush.
Effects: Memory retention, alertness, increased energy, improves focus, creativity, euphoria.
Medical Benefits: inflammation, asthma (bronchodilator), antimicrobial, antiseptic.
Pinene smells like pine. It helps you breathe easier, and helps you focus. Strains high in pinene are shown to help memory retention and recall as well as overall alertness. Ideal for studying or working.
*(MYR) Myrcene: (Body Buzz) Vaporizes at 331*F(167*C)
Aroma: Cloves, Earthy, Herbal, Citrus, Tropical, Musky
Found in: Mango, Lemongrass, Thyme, hops, Citrus, Bay Leaves
Strains: Granddaddy Purple, Amnesia Haze, Trainwreck, Blue Dream, Pure Kush, Skunk #1, White Widow, Chemdawg, Grape Stomper, Fire Allen Kush, Agent Orange.
Effects: Sedating, relaxing, enhances THC’s psychoactivity, sleep aid, body high.
Medical Benefits: Antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, muscle relaxant, antibiotic, anti-carcinogenic, pain relief, antioxidant, insomnia.
Myrcene is a cornerstone of the Kush family and known for inducing a “couch-lock” effect.
*(LME) Limonene: (Energetic) Vaporizes at 348*(176*C)
Aroma: Citrus, Lemon, Orange
Found in: Fruit Rinds, rosemary, juniper, peppermint, lemons, oranges, citrus
Strains: Hindu Kush, Lemon G, Strawberry Banana, Sour Diesel, Trainwreck, OG Kush, Lemon Haze, Sour Diesel, Lemon Skunk, Girl Scout Cookies, Pre-98 Bubba Kush, Tangerine Dream, Cush/Green Crack, Super Lemon Haze.
Effects: Elevated mood, stress relief.
Medical Benefits: Anti-depression, anti-anxiety, gastric reflux, antifungal, immune booster, anti-cancer, antiseptic, treats acid reflux, relieves nausea.
Limonene promotes stress relief and mood elevation. Strains with high limonene content will make you talkative, happy, and social. Perfect for a session with your friends!
*(CYE)Caryophyllene: (Happy) Vaporizes at 266*F(130*C)
Aroma: Pepper, Spicy, Woody, Cloves
Found in: Black Pepper, cloves, cinnamon, hops, basil, oregano, cotton.
Strains: Fire OG, GG4, Girl Scout Cookies, Hash Plant, OG Kush, Bubba Kush, Gorilla Glue #4, Tangerine Dream, Sage n Sour, Pineapple Express, White Widow.
Effects: Pain reliever
Medical Benefits: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, muscle spasms, chronic pain, insomnia, anti-anxiety, anti-depression, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, antiseptic, analgesic.
Caryophyllene is bound to make you feel very happy. Beta-caryophyllene will elevate your mood and alleviate your depression. A few puffs and worries will float away.
*(LNL)Linalool: (Relaxes) Vaporizes at 388*F(198*C)
Aroma: Floral, spice, citrus, candy, sugar, sweets
Found in: lavender, citrus, laurel, birch, rosewood
Strains: Kosher Kush, Romulan, Sour Kush, Skywalker OG, Headband, G-13, Amnesia Haze, Lavender, LA Confidential, Bubble Gum, 9lb Hammer, Sour Diesel, Locomotion
Effects: Sedating, calming, relaxing
Medical Benefits: Insomnia, stress, anti-depression, anti-anxiety, pain reliever, anti-convulsions, anesthetic, analgesic, antibacterial, sedating.
Linalool is a comforting aroma and promotes relaxation and well-being. Linalool is also found in cotton and linen; this explains why the smell of warm towels and fresh sheets can be so soothing.
*(HUM)Humulene: Vaporizes at 222*F(106*C)
Aroma: Woody, earthy, herbal, spicy
Found in: Hops, coriander, cloves, basil
Strains: Black Cherry OG, Death Star, Girl Scout Cookies, Liberty Haze, Gorilla Glue #4, Cush, Green Crack, Sage n Sour.
Effects: Suppresses appetite
Medical Benefits: Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, pain reliever, anti-tumor, appetite suppressant.
*(OCM)Ocimene: Vaporizes at 122*F(50*C)
Aroma: Sweet, herbal, woody
Found in: Mint, parsley, pepper, basil, mangoes, orchids, kumquats
Strains: Sensi Star, Durban Poison, Silver Bubble
*(TPE)Terpinolene: Vaporizes at 366*F(186*C)
Aroma: Pine, floral, herbal
Found in: Nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, lilacs
Strains: Dutch Treat, Ghost Train Haze, Agent Orange, Jack Herer, Super Jack
Effects: Calming, Sedating
Medical Benefits: Antioxidant, sleep-inducing.
Terpenes, a large class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons, make up a small amount of the cannabis plant, but pack some powerful benefits as well as flavors and scents! Terpenes and cannabinoids work together, and with flavonoids as well, synergistically in a unique culmination producing maximum medical efficiency in what is called the entourage effect. Terpenes are a key component in the entourage effect.
Myrcene holds very special medicinal properties such as lowering the resistance across the blood to brain barrier, allowing itself and many other chemicals to cross the barrier more easily and quickly. This allows the effects of the cannabinoids to take effect more quickly.
Pinene is used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory, expectorant, bronchodilator, and local antiseptic. Supposedly the effects of THC are lessened when combined with Pinene.
Limonene is highly absorbed by inhalation and quickly enters the bloodstream. It assists in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and other tissues. Limonene may be beneficial in protecting against some cancers; orally administered limonene is currently undergoing clinical trials in the treatment of breast cancer. Limonene even helps promote weight loss, and plants use limonene as a natural insecticide to ward off predators and parasites.
The Fine/Rosenfield pain study demonstrates Caryophyllene when combined with other phytocannabinoids, especially CBD, delivered orally appear to be promising for treatment of chronic pain. Another study suggests it may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent nephrotoxicity caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs.
Linalool has been used for centuries as a sleep aid and lessens anxious emotions provoked by pure THC. Linalool boosts the immune system and reduces lung inflammation. It can also restore cognitive and emotional function, making it useful in the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
Terpinolene has been found to be a Central Nervous System depressant, used to induce drowsiness or sleep or reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Camphene may be used as an alternative to pharmaceutical lipid-lowering agents which are proven to cause intestinal cancer, liver damage, and muscle inflammation.
Terpineol is often found in cannabis varieties that have high pinene levels and is known to have calming, relaxing effects.
Phellandrene has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat digestive disorders.
Carene is often used to dry out excess body fluids, such as tears, mucus, and sweat.
Humulene is considered to be anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anorectic and has commonly been blended with beta-caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation. Humulene has been used for generations in Chinese medicine.
Pulegone allows nerve cells to communicate more effectively with one another. A study indicated pulegone may have significant sedative and fever-reducing properties. It also alleviates the side effects of short-term memory loss sometimes associated with higher levels of THC.
Sabinene was suggested to be explored further based on results of an ongoing study by Valent, as a natural source of new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs for the development of food supplements, nutraceuticals, or plant-based medicines.
Geraniol shows promise in the treatment of neuropathy.
Terpenes have a mood-changing effect, and different strains of cannabis have different effects. Sativa tends to be awakening and helps one focus while Indica tends to have a calming effect. Terpenes provide every strain of cannabis with its smell and taste component. They are distilled from the plant and converted into a liquid form using a process that requires a huge amount of plant matter to extract just a few milliliters of terpenes. They are incredibly concentrated and would taste overpowering if consumed on their own. Therefore, terpenes are diluted.
There are seven common ways in which terpenes are used.
Adding terpenes to food can enhance the flavor and add added effects. With specific-strain terpenes, you can increase the potency of your dishes by enhancing the entourage effect and completing the synergistic relationship between terpenes and cannabinoids. Some strains are sweeter than others and would pair well with candy edibles while others are zestier and would go well with a lemon meringue or citrus baked goods.
Terpenes can be added to a diffuser exactly like essential oils. Breathing them in is an effective and quick way to experience the benefits. You can even time when you use your diffuser and which strain, for example, with an indica you can use it before going to bed to decrease activity and promote calmness, and with at Sativa you could time it before working or any activity to increase stimulation.
3. Dilute Into Beverages:
Terpenes can be added to any beverage and sipped throughout the day. They can even be added to just water! The recommendation is mixing 1-2 drops into 500ml of water and consuming it slowly throughout the day. It isn’t necessary to guzzle the drink to benefit from it.
Just as terpenes can be mixed with food and water, they can also be mixed into your e-liquid. The recommended dosage is adding 1 drop of terpenes to every 1ml of vape liquid. It is also recommended to allow your vape to steep for 48 hours. This allows the flavor to be consistent. If you were to vape immediately after adding the terpene you wouldn’t notice the effects of the terpenes for a few days. For a total entourage effect, try adding terpenes to CBD E-Juice! You can find both terpenes and E-Juice in my shop.
5. Rubbing onto Temples:
Just like an essential oil, terpenes are beneficial when rubbed onto the temples. Strains like OG Bubblegum terpenes will help if you’re anxious and need a moment of mental clarity. All it takes is one drop, rub it against your finger and apply onto the temples.
6. Mixing with Concentrate:
Terpenes can be added to any form of concentrated cannabis product such as crystals, hash, shatter or wax. This increases the quality and effects of your products. It is recommended to add extremely small amounts to concentrates. Even a drop can be overpowering so less is more with this approach.
7. Curing your Flowers:
Your flowers may have a great range of cannabinoids but could be lacking in terpenes. Adding hemp derived terpenes helps orchestrate the effects the flowers have, shifting them more towards indica or Sativa. You can rub them straight onto the flowers or grind them up and mix them in the terpenes. Adding terpenes to flower enhances the synergy of terpenes and cannabinoids and can increase the entourage effect.
We have chosen to carry terpenes in addition to the rest of our products. You can find them and more information about the terpenes we have chosen to carry in our shop.
This just is a tip of the iceberg of different terpenes and what they can do. Studies will reveal more as federal regulations are lifted and scientists can discover more miraculous benefits of terpenes in cannabis. It is worth exploring and will be the change in our society as far as health and overall wellness is concerned. Big waves are going to happen!